Monday, December 2, 2019
"The Struggle for Individuality" Richard Wright was a young man of extreme intelligence and openness to speak his mind. Richard's writings in "Black Boy" are a collection of his alienation, not only from white society, but from his own people. In Richard's boyhood there was virtually no chance for a personality such as his to develop freely. Everything conspired against personal freedom, not only the white social structure, but the black as well. Richard was treated brutally and tyrannically at home in order to prevent his being treated the same way or worse outside of home and especially in the white society. His family tried to enforce a code of conduct on him, so when in the presence of whites he would not be harmed. The family was trying to convey to Richard that black children must never strive to be more than black children; if they did, not only would they suffer a terrible fate by the white people, but their families would as well. This was a method of limiting one's individuality, fortunate! for Richard he overcame and aspired to become a great writer. Richard's struggle for freedom and individuality started at a young age with the brutality from his family and the black society. We see this very early when Richard is beaten, almost to death, by his mother and father for setting the house on fire. On could argue that the beaten was justified, but the extreme method of this beaten can not be justified. It appears that Richard was more afraid of the punishment he would receive from his family, rather then the punishment he would receive from the white people. He shows this when he is fighting with white boys on his way to the grocery store and his mother keeps sending him back to purchase the groceries. "I have the choice of being beaten at home or away from home" (p20) He chose to fight the white boy's rather then get beaten by his mother, this helped build his individuality. This brutality within the family continued with other members of his family after his mother became ill. This was to ensure that he learn the c! ode of conduct that he should follow towards white people. Richard's greatest struggles were with Granny and Aunt Addie, as they tried to control his individuality. Richard attends the Seventh-Day Adventist school taught by his Aunt Addie and rebels against its strict rules. While in school he was faulted and punished by his Aunt Addie for throwing walnut shells on the floor, which he had not done. Richard stood by his street gang code of not telling on someone for faults they committed, because of this he was punished again. Richard did not excel in school while his Aunt was his teacher. Once Richard transfers to the public Jim Hill School, he excels academically and gains friends. Richard was finally given up as a lost cause by his family; they expect nothing of him anymore, so he was free to do as he chooses. Richard now is no longer one who struggles against his family in order to win their approval, so he turns his rebellion to the outside. Richard growing awareness of a world outside his own, starts with inquires of his mother on the subject of white people. Richard feels that he may be late in learning to sense white people because he never really thought of them, they just existed. Also, the fact that "?tardiness in learning to sense white people as white people came from the fact that many of my relatives were ?white' -- looking people" (p27) His mother tries to protect him from seeing his condition for what it is. Richard's mothers and family's efforts to make him comply with the standards set by a white society succeed only insofar as Richard could take care of himself. They failed, however, in keeping him unconscious of his own individuality. His inquires continue of black and white people. Richard's openness of asking questions and making statements to white's lead to a view of the brutality and rejection of blacks by whites. This restricted the ability of the Negro to strive for individuality. Richard's home and school life
The Jewel of the Gulf The Dubain desert has given birth toa grand island. Situated off the gorgeous Dubain shore and engulfed within the Gulfs crystal sparkling blue waters, The Palm Jumeirahs architectural brilliance hypnotises the viewer. Solely a residential area of beach front villas, luxury apartments and 5 star hotels, the Palm Jumeirahs branches boast a mesmerising display of engineering success; placing it amidst the great wonders of the modern world. The Designers Nakheel is one of the largest architectural companies in the world, and has proven tself through its amazing buildings, engineering and architectural feats. As the designers of The World, The Palms, The universe and much more, they are driven by their vision for a better way of life, it is a vision with humanity as its heart (Our Vision, Accessed 9/5/09). Their developments within Dubai have become icons known all around the world, which highlight Nakheels originality and ingenuity, and thus never fail to inspire the people of the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Palm Jumeirah or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As their Chairman, Sultan bin Sulayem said Nakheel is more than Just a company its a belief that defies ordinary thinking, hen conventional wisdom says no, we say yes and make it happen. The Testing Period Test Model http://www. bebrandx. com/archives/Nakheel%20Cityscape%20USA %20Palm%20Jumeirah%20Model. Jpg Before construction, tests were undertaken by Nakheel, in order to determine whether or not the Palm Jumeirah would be possible to create. They combined with Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock (HHCP); famous for Sea world and Disney Worlds, for feedback on the possibility of the concept design. miears of research, trials, surveys and environmental assessments were carried out to form the back bone of the project (The Palm, Jumeirah, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Accessed 8/5/09). The assessments and surveys included tests that were carried out by Dubai-based Emirates Nortech to check the shape and volume of the island above and below the waterline (The Palm, Jumeirah, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Accessed 8/5/09). Three dimensional physical scale models were also built and tested on by Dubai-based Sogreath Gulf. This organization did laboratory tests using 12 metre random wave generator, along with the help of WL Delft which created the hydraulic simulated tidal waves, in order to model the breakwater crescent. These re-construction tests made Nakheel aware of the stagnate water within the 16 channels between the branches of the Palm Jumeirah. This led to a crucial recommendation to include two 100 metre openings on either side to allow the sea t be refreshed every 14 days and improve the water quality (The Palm, Jumeirah, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Accessed 8/5/09). Due to both, 3D physical models and computer generated tests, the final designs were finalised and adapted, which in turn allow the project to move on to is first stages of construction. The Palm Jumeirahs Construction Jumeirah under construction http://www. atsup]acksonville. com/wp-content/ uploads/2008/12/the-palm-Jumeirah-march-2007-stelllar-group. Jpg Nakheel along 2002. They first began working on the breakwater to protect the reclaimed land from both the northerly winds and the oceans strong currents. A team of divers, surveyors, engineers and builders worked hand in hand as they constructed the crescent- shaped breakwater from relocating sand which formed the base toppled with rocks blasted from the mountains to form the foundation of the breakwater. This is the first curved breakwater to be built which sits 13 feet above sea level at low tide and sits n 34 feet of water at its deepest point (Why is the worlds largest artificial island in the shape of a palm tree? , By Sarah Dowdy, Accessed 10/5/09). The elliptical shape of the branches as well as the breakwater, made it very difficult for both the builders and surveyors, when placing the sand for the bases of the construction. Nakheels CEO Chris ODonnell expresses this complication as he states because there were no fixed points of land to survey from, there had to be other means of locating the positions to place the materials (The Palm, Jumeirah, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Accessed 8/5/09). This obstacle however, was overcome when the teams engineers produce a solution, the DGPS, differential global positioning system, which like a GPS works through satellites but provides builders with unbelievable accuracy of placement to within 1 cm. The sand, all 94 million cubic metres, for the base of both the palm and the breakwater, was collected from the sea and not from the Dubain deserts. However, this was done for a reason as the sand from the sea is more environmentally sustainable, more stable in terms of seismic and geotechnical terms (The Palm, Jumeirah, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Accessed 8/5/09). The sand from the sea would also help marine life to grow due to the sands fertility and organic matter. Once the sand was relocated and positioned, it needed to be settled so that construction could begin.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
During the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and 70Ã¢â¬â¢s, blacks were struggling for civil rights, and equal opportunities. In the late 60Ã¢â¬â¢s a movement was formed Ã¢â¬Å"The Black PanthersÃ¢â¬ called for the reform of American society to achieve social, political, and economic equality, based on principles of socialism. The political party shock up the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s, tired of police brutality and uncivil treatment as human beings. Heuy P. Newton and Booby Seale formed a Party in Oakland, California. The movement gained political attention and migrated around America. The Panthers patrolled the black communities with symbolic berets, firearms, black hats, and black leather jackets. They were recognized as militant and courageous Afro-American Nationalist. (Panther, (1995) Dir. Mario Peebles with Kadeem Hardison, Courtney Vance) The members expanded their services: providing free breakfast for children, clothes, and funded education for poor children. By the end of the year, the Panthers set up kitchens in cities across the nation, feeding over 10,000 children every day before they went to school. During this political movement hundreds of the Panthers were killed by the FBI, and county policemen. The Panthers efficiently eliminated by the FBI, majority went to jail for crimes that were made up, others were killed execution style. Some of the Panthers still remain Political PrisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s, some are professors at University, and others became a victim to drug addiction. One of the most popular drugs was crack cocaine. Crack sabotaged the black communities, in which the Panthers struggled to liberate. (marxists.org/history/usa/workers/black-panthers/) In April 1969, the Panther 21 case, a jury acquitted New York Party members who has been charged with arson, conspiracy, and attempted murder, for allegedly plotting police assassinations and attempting to blow up public buildings. One of the Panther 21Ã¢â¬â¢s was Afeni Shakur. Afeni Shakur joined the political Party ... Free Essays on Tupac Vs. Biggie Free Essays on Tupac Vs. Biggie During the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and 70Ã¢â¬â¢s, blacks were struggling for civil rights, and equal opportunities. In the late 60Ã¢â¬â¢s a movement was formed Ã¢â¬Å"The Black PanthersÃ¢â¬ called for the reform of American society to achieve social, political, and economic equality, based on principles of socialism. The political party shock up the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s, tired of police brutality and uncivil treatment as human beings. Heuy P. Newton and Booby Seale formed a Party in Oakland, California. The movement gained political attention and migrated around America. The Panthers patrolled the black communities with symbolic berets, firearms, black hats, and black leather jackets. They were recognized as militant and courageous Afro-American Nationalist. (Panther, (1995) Dir. Mario Peebles with Kadeem Hardison, Courtney Vance) The members expanded their services: providing free breakfast for children, clothes, and funded education for poor children. By the end of the year, the Panthers set up kitchens in cities across the nation, feeding over 10,000 children every day before they went to school. During this political movement hundreds of the Panthers were killed by the FBI, and county policemen. The Panthers efficiently eliminated by the FBI, majority went to jail for crimes that were made up, others were killed execution style. Some of the Panthers still remain Political PrisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s, some are professors at University, and others became a victim to drug addiction. One of the most popular drugs was crack cocaine. Crack sabotaged the black communities, in which the Panthers struggled to liberate. (marxists.org/history/usa/workers/black-panthers/) In April 1969, the Panther 21 case, a jury acquitted New York Party members who has been charged with arson, conspiracy, and attempted murder, for allegedly plotting police assassinations and attempting to blow up public buildings. One of the Panther 21Ã¢â¬â¢s was Afeni Shakur. Afeni Shakur joined the political Party ...
Bose Ads essays The Bose speaker ads have been known for their tremendous reputation. Matching up in Bose's price range for the same product in a different brand will show a lot of differences and similarities. They look much better than any other speakers by being stylish, compact, and also by having a natural color which portrays the elegance of the speakers. The ads accomplishment in engaging its viewers is due, in part, to its numerous convincing strategies and techniques. The Lifestyle system from Bose is one of the most innovative home theater speakers ever created. They have been known for their small size and room filling sound. The colors of the speakers in these ads always seem to match the vibe of any room. One of the main features this system has is an ADAPTiQ audio calibration system. This means that the actual speakers adjust themselves to the room to deliver a surround sound that you have never felt before. Another system by Bose is the 321 GS system. This system looks more reliable and just plain easy just by looking at the ad. Having only two speakers, which still deliver that awesome sound, but without using any wires. This is something that a lot of people dream about. You would be able to move any of those speakers around the house without the clutter of connecting wires and still have that remarkable sound. An additional system that has just been introduced to the Bose family is the Bose Companion 3. This next system is meant for the computer gamer or MP3 enthusiast looking for that same great sound. The two palm size satellites are designed in a way to again match the desktop or the surroundings. One cool feature about this system is that it has a control pod that is used to control the volume and it also has an accessible headphone jack; just by tapping the top part of pod one time would turn on the mute mode. The most often repetitive argument in ...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Comparison of Private and Public Schools Are you someone who is considering whether or not private schools are better than public schools? Many families want to know more about the differences and similarities between private and public schools, and weve outlined several of the differences and similarities for you here. Whats Taught Public schools must adhere to state standards regarding what can be taught and how it is presented. Certain subjects such as religion and sexual practices are taboo. Rulings in many court cases over the years have determined the scope and limits of what can be taught and how it is presented in public school. By contrast, a private school can teach whatever it likes and present it in any way it chooses. Thats because parents choose to send their children to a specific school which has a program and educational philosophy with which they are comfortable. That doesnt mean that private schools run wild and dont provide a quality education; they still undergo rigorous accreditation processes regularly to ensure that they are providing the best educational experience possible. However, there is a similarity. As a rule, both public and private high schools require a certain number of credits in core subjects such as English, mathematics, and science in order to graduate. Admission Standards While public schools must accept all students within their jurisdiction with few exceptions. Behavior is one of those exceptionsÃ and really bad behavior which must be well-documented over time. A private school, on the other hand, accepts any student it wishes to according to its academic and other standards. It is not required to give a reason why it has refused to admit anyone. Its decision is final. Both private and public schools use some kind of testing and review transcripts to determine the grade level for new students. Accountability Public schools must comply with a host of federal, state and local laws and regulations including No Child Left Behind, Title I, etc. The number of regulations with which a public school must comply is vast. In addition, public schools must also comply with all the state and local building, fire and safety codes just as the private schools must. Private schools, on the other hand, must observe federal, state and local laws such as annual reports to the IRS, maintenance of state-required attendance, curriculum and safety records and reports, compliance with local building, fire and sanitation codes. There is plenty of regulation, inspection, and review of the operations of both private and public schools. Accreditation Accreditation is generally required for public schools in most states. While accreditation for private schools is optional, most college prep schools seek and maintain accreditation from the major accrediting organizations. The process of peer review is a good thing for both private and public schools. Graduation Rates The rate of public school students graduating high school is actually on the rise since 2005-2006, maxing out at 82% in 2012-2013, with about 66% of students going on to college. A variety of factors come into play which results in that relatively low matriculation rate. The drop-out rate in public schools tends to have a negative effect on matriculation data, and many students who enter into trade careers tend to enroll at public schools rather than private, which decreases the rate of students who go on to college. In private schools, the matriculation rate to college is typically in the 95% and up range. Minority students who attend a private high school are more likely to attend college than minority students who attend public school according to NCES data. The reason why most private high schools do well in this area is that they are generally selective. They will only accept students who can do the work, and they tend to accept students whose goals are to continue in college.Ã Private schools also offer personalized college counseling programs to help students find the best fit colleges for them.Ã Cost Funding differs greatly between private and public schools. Public schools are not allowed to charge any tuition fees in most jurisdictions at the elementary level. You will encounter modest fees in high schools. Public schools are funded largely by local property taxes, though many districts also receive funding from state and federal sources. Private schools charge for every aspect of their programs. Fees are determined by market forces. Private school tuition averages about $9,582 per student according to Private School Review. Breaking that down further, private elementary schools tend to be $8,522 a year, while secondary schools average nearly $13,000. The average boarding school tuition, however, is $38,850, according to College Bound. Private schools take no public funding. As a result, they must operate with balanced budgets. Discipline Discipline is handled differently in private schools vs public schools. Discipline in public schools is somewhat complicated because students are governed by due process and constitutional rights. This has the practical effect of making it difficult to discipline students for minor and major infractions of the schools code of conduct. Private school students are governed by the contract which they and their parents sign with the school. It clearly spells out consequences for what the school considers unacceptable behavior. Safety Violence in public schools is a top priority for administrators and teachers. The highly-publicized shootings and other acts of violence which have taken place in public schools have resulted in the application of stringent rules and security measures such as metal detectors to help create and maintain a safe learning environment. Private schools are generally safe places. Access to campuses and buildings is carefully monitored and controlled. Because schools usually have fewer students than a public school, it is easier to supervise the school population. Both private and public school administrators have your childs safety on top of their list of priorities. Teacher Certification There are someÃ key differences between private and public schools regarding Teacher Certification. For example, public school teachers must be certified by the state in which they are teaching. Certification is granted once statutory requirements such as education courses and teaching practice are met. The certificate is valid for a set number of years and must be renewed. In most states, private school teachers can teach without a teaching certificate. Most private schools prefer teachers to become certified as a condition of employment. Private schools tend to hire teachers with a bachelors or masters degree in their subject.Ã Article edited byÃ Stacy Jagodowski
History of the First Credit Card Charging for products and services has become a way of life. No longer do people bring cash when they buy a sweater or a large appliance, they charge it. Some people do it for the convenience of not carrying cash; others put it on plastic so they can purchase an item they can not yet afford. The credit card that allows them to do this is a twentieth-century invention. At the beginning of the twentieth century, people had to pay cash for almost all products and services. Although the early part of the century saw an increase in individual store credit accounts, a credit card that could be used at more than one merchant was not invented until 1950. It all started when Frank X. McNamara and two of his friends went out to supper. The Famous Supper In 1949, Frank X McNamara, head of the Hamilton Credit Corporation, went out to eat with Alfred Bloomingdale, McNamaras long-time friend and grandson of the founder of the Bloomingdales store, and Ralph Sneider, McNamaras attorney. The three men were eating at Majors Cabin Grill, a famous New York restaurant located next to the Empire State Building, to discuss a problem customer of the Hamilton Credit Corporation. The problem was that one of McNamaras customers had borrowed some money but was unable to pay it back. This particular customer had gotten into troubleÃ when he had lent a number of his charge cards (available from individual department stores and gas stations) to his poor neighbors who needed items in an emergency. For this service, the man required his neighbors to pay him back the cost of the original purchase plus some extra money. Unfortunately for the man, many of his neighbors were unable to pay him back within a short period of time, and he was then forced to borrow money from the Hamilton Credit Corporation. At the end of the meal with his two friends, McNamara reached into his pocket for his wallet so that he could pay for the meal (in cash). He was shocked to discover that he had forgotten his wallet. To his embarrassment, he then had to call his wife and have her bring him some money. McNamara vowed never to let this happen again. Merging the two concepts from that dinner, the lending of credit cards and not having cash on hand to pay for the meal, McNamara came up with a new idea - a credit card that could be used at multiple locations. What was particularly novel about this concept was that there would be a middleman between companies and their customers. The Middleman Though the concept of credit has existed longer even than money, charge accounts became popular in the early twentieth century. With the invention and growing popularity of automobiles and airplanes, people now had the option to travel to a variety of stores for their shopping needs. In an effort to capture customer loyalty, various department stores and gas stations began to offer charge accounts for their customers which could be accessed by a card. Unfortunately, people needed to bring dozens of these cards with them if they were to do a day of shopping. McNamara had the idea of needing only one credit card. McNamara discussed the idea with Bloomingdale and Sneider, and the three pooled some money and started a new company in 1950 which they called the Diners Club. The Diners Club was going to be a middleman. Instead of individual companies offering credit to their customers (whom they would bill later), the Diners Club was going to offer credit to individuals for many companies (then bill the customers and pay the companies). Previously, stores would make money with their credit cards by keeping customers loyal to their particular store, thus maintaining a high level of sales. However, the Diners Club needed a different way to make money since they werent selling anything. To make a profit without charging interest (interest-bearing credit cards came much later), the companies who accepted the Diners Club credit card were charged 7 percent for each transaction while the subscribers to the credit card were charged a $3 annual fee (begun in 1951). McNamaras new credit company focused on salesmen. Since salesmen often need to dine (hence the new companys name) at multiple restaurants to entertain their clients, the Diners Club needed both to convince a large number of restaurants to accept the new card and to get salesmen to subscribe. The first Diners Club credit cards were given out in 1950 to 200 people (most were friends and acquaintances of McNamara) and accepted by 14 restaurants in New York. The cards were not made of plastic; instead, the first Diners Club credit cards were made of paper stock with the accepting locations printed on the back. In the beginning, progress was difficult. Merchants didnt want to pay the Diners Clubs fee and didnt want competition for their store cards; while customers didnt want to sign up unless there were a large number of merchants that accepted the card. However, the concept of the card grew, and by the end of 1950, 20,000 people were using the Diners Club credit card. The Future Though the Diners Club continued to grow and by the second year was making a profit ($60,000), McNamara thought the concept was just a fad. In 1952, he sold his shares in the company for more than $200,000 to his two partners. The Diners Club credit card continued to grow more popular and didnt receive competition until 1958. In that year, both American Express and the Bank Americard (later called VISA) arrived. The concept of a universal credit card had taken root and quickly spread across the world.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Analysing operational risk failure of Barings bank - Essay Example At the heart of the devastating scam was a person with a huge appetite for risk-taking but hardly any accountability towards the bank, Nick Leeson. Overnight, the unscrupulous futures' trader from London who was previously the poster boy for Barings' high-growth earnings from Singapore's premium monetary exchange, SIMEX (In 1993, he documented nearly 10% of the bank's profits in futures' trading), took special advantage of the bank's vulnerability in not being able to hedge the risks that come with dealing in a concern as sensitive as this. This is what happened. Nick Leeson's job as Chief Trader at SIMEX was to buy and sell the simplest kind of derivatives pegged to the Nikkei-225 stock exchange of Japan. This job entails the methodology of a skilled bookie who basically, bets on what people are likely to bet on in the future course. Despite booking profits on various occasions, some of Leeson's predictions proved incorrect. The idea to fool the bank management in covering up details of unsuccessful tradings came from devising an unaudited bank account, called error account 88888, to fix 20,000 goofed up by an inexperienced team member, which was later to serve as Leeson's personal getaway in covering up failed investment strategies. Even as the entire audit team of Barings' was kept in dark about what was the tip of the iceberg then, Leeson managed to document account losses which were initially at 2 million in 1992 to an astronomical figure of 208 million by 1994. The final blow came when Leeson pulled out a short-selling stunt by compromising derivatives at the Japanese and Singapore stock exchanges. An earthquake in Japan in Jan, 1995 upset his apple cart, the Nikkei plummeting by 7.7% overnight, the repercussions being felt across much of the Asian markets. Leeson desperately hoped for a recovery post-quake but, the trouble grew deeper as Barings' liabilities upward of 1 billion came to the fore. Before the bank authorities could take corrective action, the worst had happen, and one of the most glaring financial scams of recent history captured our imagination. Leeson later served a 4-year prison sentence in Singapore, eventually returned to the UK as a "celebrity", and ironically today, is a much sought-after speaker in guiding corporations and banks to manage risk in their financial dealings. While the Barings' episode is painfully over, the chances of another scam of this magnitude should not be ruled out. It is with this objective in mind that we must understand the mechanics of operational-risk management when applied to financial tradings. While analysing the basics of this study, we will simultaneously try to picture what happened in Barings, and what could have been done to arrest the ugly development. To understand the guidelines of